1. Riddell, W. R.  “A Negro Slave in Detroit when Detroit was Canadian,” MHM  XVIII (1934), pages 48-52.
  1. Parkman, Francis.  The Old Regime in Canada.  Little, Brown, and Company, Boston; 1895, pages 438. 
  1. Gibb, H. L.  “Slaves in Old Detroit.”  MHM, XVIII (1934), pages 143-149.
  1. Girardin, J.A. “Slavery in Detroit.”  P & Q History Collection, I (1887), pages 415-16. 
  1. Goodrich, Calvin.  The First Michigan Frontier.  University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1940, pages 196-211.
  1. For:  George Fox, September 5, 1956 
  1. Lansing Republican, January 1880.  Haviland, Laura S. “Fled from southern bondage:  the history of Willis Hamilton.”  Concluded in January 31, 1880 issue.
  1. Thwaites, Reuben Gold, ed.  NEW VOYAGES TO NORTH-AMERICA by the Baron de Lahontan.  (1905) Volume 1, page 169.  “Ft2:  Slavery among the Indians was due entirely to prisoners taken in war.  It was a mild form, slaves being usually treated as members of the family, and having the hope of exchange or ransom by their own tribe.  From the Indians it spread to the French in Illinois, and was authorized by edit in 1709.  See Lafontaine, “Del l’esclavage in Canada,” in Montreal Historical Society MEMORIES, 1858.” 
  1. Michigan Historical Collections, Volume 12, 1887, pages 511-522.
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